Diabetes is an unpleasant and dangerous disease. It has many unpleasant complications that appear along with the development of pathology. In some cases, they can lead to the death of the patient. Modern lifestyle negatively affects health, provoking many diseases. Diabetes is among them. Unfortunately, people do not always notice the first symptoms of the disorder and do not know its consequences. As a result, they lose valuable time. Let us together consider these important issues.
Diabetes is a common disorder. The general age of onset for disease is gradually decreasing every year. Today, doctors diagnose pathology even in adolescents. According to international statistics, up to 20% of the world’s population can suffer from diabetes!
Table of Contents
What is diabetes?
Doctors define diabetes as one of the human endocrine system diseases, which occurs in a chronic form. Its main danger is a violation of the body’s metabolism. This factor leads to dangerous complications. The cause of diabetes is an insufficient or complete absence of insulin in the blood. It helps the body’s cells absorb glucose. This organic compound provides tissue saturation with energy. If the pancreas, which is responsible for the production of insulin, stops producing the hormone, then a person will immediately have problems. Blood sugar level rises and cells begin to starve. Therefore, everyone should remember that a stable blood sugar level is an important indicator of the healthy functioning of the body, which cannot be ignored.
Doctors identify the following factors that can trigger the development of diabetes:
- Sedentary lifestyle
- Genetic predisposition
- Regular stress
- Advanced age
- Complications after a bacterial or viral infection
- Taking medications, etc.
If a person takes care of his health, then he must reduce the number of such factors to a minimum.
What are the symptoms of the disease?
The main sign of diabetes, according to which doctors determine the disease and its development, is the blood sugar level. However, it requires special tests and equipment. Not every person has the opportunity to analyze on their own regularly. Therefore, endocrinologists have identified some symptoms due to which a person can recognize insulin problems. The most notable of them are:
- General weakness and fatigue
- Weight loss, even with large amounts of food
- Dry mouth, constant thirst
- Bad breath that looks like acetone
- Slow wound healing
- A long course of various viral and bacterial infections
- Drop-in body temperature below standard
- Repeated urination
If one or more of the above symptoms is detected, a person should immediately consult a doctor for help. Delay can cause serious complications.
Types of pathology
Doctors classify the disease into two main types: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Besides, they separate prediabetes into individual form.
This condition is characterized by an increase in blood sugar level to above normal levels, but not sufficient for the diagnosis of diabetes. Prediabetes is an intermediate zone between a healthy condition and type 2 diabetes. It occurs due to a decrease in the body’s sensitivity to insulin. Unfortunately, in this state, a person rarely experiences the characteristic signs of disease described above. Therefore, he may not be aware of an approaching ailment. The only way to detect prediabetes is to check your blood sugar level.
Type 1 diabetes
Endocrinologists call this type of disorder as insulin-dependent diabetes. The pancreas partially or completely ceases to produce insulin. The main cause of such a problem is a complication after infectious pathologies. Therefore, specialists diagnose type 1 diabetes most often in adolescents and children. About 12% of the total number of patients suffer from this form of pathology. Unfortunately, this disorder is incurable. The patient should inject insulin into his organism all his life and adhere to a diabetic diet. Otherwise, a diabetic coma may occur.
Type 2 diabetes
Doctors call this type of disease as non-insulin-dependent diabetes. The organism gradually loses sensitivity to insulin. However, the pancreas continues to produce this hormone. About 88% of all diabetes patients suffer from this form of pathology. Loss of sensitivity is associated with a large number of nutrients in the cells. Therefore, type 2 diabetes most often affects overweight people. Symptoms of the disease appear gradually. Often people don’t even know that they are sick. It is worth noting that the main method of treatment is the correct diet. Insulin sensitivity gradually returns with weight loss. However, the attending physician may prescribe insulin injections in individual cases.
Why is diabetes so dangerous?
Diabetes of any type is primarily dangerous by the complications it causes. First of all, small and large vessels are damaged. As a result of insulin lack, blood circulation processes are disturbed. Organs cease to function properly. Secondary dangerous pathologies of the heart arise. A person can die from a stroke, kidney failure, liver problems, etc.
Constant high blood sugar level along with broken vessels leads to the development of diabetic neuropathy (or loss of sensitivity) of the extremities. Non-healing trophic ulcers begin to form. A so-called diabetic foot is formed. All these ailments ultimately lead to amputation of the affected limb.
It is worth noting the diabetic coma. This is an extremely dangerous complication of insulin lack. If the patient does not receive qualified help on time, then he first falls into a coma and then dies. In this condition, doctors have only a few minutes to save a person.
We reviewed only a shortlist of dangerous complications that may appear. There are many more. Every organ and every body system suffers from diabetes. Therefore, it is very important to begin treatment as soon as possible after the detection of the disease.
How to diagnose a disorder?
The main method for diagnosing diabetes is to perform a multiple test for blood sugar level. For this, the specialist identifies the current and daily concentration of glucose in the body. Your doctor may order additional tests to determine your type of disease. These include:
- Blood chemistry
- Study of blood plasma
- Analysis of urine
- Capillaroscopy is performed to determine vascular lesions
In special cases, the endocrinologist can prescribe a comprehensive examination with other doctors, for example, a cardiologist, an ophthalmologist, etc.
Doctors say that it is impossible to completely cure diabetes because its cause is a complex change within the body itself. Therefore, treatment is aimed at maintaining the patient’s normal life and preventing the development of deadly complications. Endocrinologists use complex techniques that differ depending on the type of disease.
Insulin injections are vital for patients with type 1 diabetes because they compensate for the lack of hormone in the body. The number of injections given is individual and depends on many factors. Only the attending physician will be able to prescribe the daily regimen and dosage of insulin. In addition to injections, the patient must check his blood sugar level several times a day. In case of sudden fluctuations, contact your doctor.
The main treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes is a proper diet. It is aimed at a gradual decrease in sugar and overweight. Attending physicians prescribe insulin injections only in complex cases. The diet is made individually, depending on the weight of the person, his physical abilities and age. Endocrinologists recommend taking sugar-lowering drugs. They can significantly reduce sugar level.
An active lifestyle and exercise are recommended for patients with both types of disorder. The doctor individually for each person determines the degree of the load. Patients should abandon sugar-containing foods and increase the consumption of meat, fruits, dairy products and spices.
Subject to all the recommendations of the attending physician, a patient with diabetes can lead a full life and not be afraid of dangerous complications.
How to prevent the development of the disease?
Lack of insulin is not a fatal disease if a patient follows certain rules. However, it brings a lot of inconvenience to life. Everyone knows that the disease is easier to prevent than to treat. Doctors say that a healthy lifestyle is the best way to prevent diabetes. A person should minimize the consumption of various sweets and control his weight. His diet should be rich in vitamins and complex carbohydrates. Active sport is an excellent prevention. If a person’s relative is already sick with diabetes, then he should check the blood sugar level to detect a possible prediabetic period in time. By following these simple rules, you can protect yourself from diabetes and fully enjoy your life!